In the behavior and activity of a person, all his individual characteristics and qualities are manifested, which in their totality determine the character of the person. In psychology, character is understood as a psychological property of a person, which finds its manifestation in its subjective relations to society, activity, itself, its life activity, and other people. This system of properties is constantly implemented in the actions of a person, his way of life, and is not only a prerequisite, but also the result of his real behavior in certain life situations.
Despite the fact that in all systems of human relations, his character finds its individual manifestation, the presence and combination of certain features makes it possible to predict his reaction in a certain situation or to a specific stimulus. The easiest way to do this is due to the so-called typical characters identified in psychological science, which allow you to predict the behavior of people belonging to a particular type. So, for example, people who have features of the international type of character (according to K. G. Jung) in many life situations will behave very similar (typically) - balanced, silent, thoughtful, as they are very restrained in emotional manifestation.
The study of various types of character led psychology to create its classification, that is, before science there was a need to systematize existing types. Classification of character types was made possible by searching for and establishing regular relationships in their formation and manifestation. There have been many similar attempts made by psychological scientists in various countries, and they often had to face rather difficult obstacles along the way. Precisely because representatives of many psychological schools and trends have tried to create their own classification of character types, there are a huge number of them today. But we must remember that it is impossible to find a universal classification that would be able to combine all existing types of characters (different countries, times and peoples).
The first attempts to identify and describe the main types of character were made by ancient Greek philosophers. Thus, Plato proposed to distinguish types of character, according to ethical principles, and Aristotle believed that the character of a person is determined by the structure and shape of the person's face. The philosopher established the following pattern: people with a rough character have a nose that resembles an onion, a hot-tempered person has a pointed nose, and noble and powerful individuals have a hooked nose. Also, Aristotle paid special attention to the similarity of the character of man and animal (this similarity was determined by appearance), for example, a person with a thick nose like a bull clearly showed laziness, and if the nose resembles a pig's Piglet (wide, swollen nostrils) - stupidity. But, of course, Aristotle's theory did not find a scientific basis.
The formation of a person's character is significantly influenced by the temperament, which plays the role of the basis on which the individual figure of the person – his character-is drawn. Depending on the prevailing type of temperament, there are four types of character: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic.
The first and most striking type of character-sanguine has the following features: sociability, activity, openness, energy, optimism, positive attitude, high performance and good lability. In the phlegmatic type of character, such traits as restraint, rationality, diligence, diligence, balance, calmness, reliability, and peacefulness find their manifestation.
The type of character of choleric has mainly the following features: irascibility, resentment, aggression, impulsivity, activity, excitability, sharpness and activity. For the melancholic type, the most characteristic features are: passivity, anxiety, self-doubt, isolation, unbalance, sentimentality and sensitivity.
In conclusion, it should be noted that among the variety of typologies of characters, each of them should primarily serve not for their schematization or typing, but for a deeper understanding of the characteristics of different types of character and studying their individual manifestations.