Historical periodization is an irreplaceable thing both in science and in the History of certain epochs that cover specific periods. Their names were invented recently after a person was able to look at the past events in retrospect, evaluate and divide them into stages.
We will omit the history of primitive society since there was no single ideology, religion, or even writing system at that time. Therefore, when we consider the epochs of humanity in order, we begin with the ancient period, because at this time the first States, the first laws and morals appeared, as well as the art that we still study. The period began around the end of the 8th century BC and lasted until 456 - the date of the fall at this time there was not only a polytheistic religion with a clear record of all the deities but also a system of writing - Greek and Latin. Also during this period, the concept of slavery was born in Europe.
Even when the school considers the epochs in order, special attention is paid to the study of the middle ages. The period began at the end of the 5th century, but there is no approximate date for its end. Some believe that it ended in the middle of the 15th century, others believe that the middle ages lasted until the 17th century. The epoch is characterized by a huge rise in Christianity. It was during these years that the great Crusades took place. Along with them, the Inquisition was born, which exterminated all opponents of the Church. In the middle ages, there was a form of slavery, such as feudalism, which existed in the world for many centuries later.
This era is usually distinguished as a separate one, but many historians believe that the Renaissance is, so to speak, the secular side of the middle ages. The bottom line is that in the end, people began to appeal to humanity. Some ancient rules and morals returned, and the Inquisition gradually lost its position. This was evident both in art and in the behavior of society. People began to visit theaters, there was such a thing as a social ball. The Renaissance, like Antiquity, was born in Italy, and today this is confirmed by numerous monuments of architecture and art.
When we consider directly the epochs of human history in order, the Baroque, although it did not last long, took an important branch in the formation of art. We will look at it in more detail below, but for now, we will note the following. This era was the logical conclusion of the Renaissance. We can say that the craving for social entertainment and beauty has grown to an incredible scale. There was an architectural style of the same name, which is characterized by pomp and pretentiousness. This trend has been shown in music, drawing, and even in people's behavior. it lasted from the 16th to the 17th centuries.
In the second half of the 17th century, humanity decided to move away from such magnificent idleness. Society, as well as the art that is created, became canonized and adjusted to clear rules. Classicism began to manifest itself in the design of buildings and interiors. Right angles, straight lines, austerity, and asceticism became fashionable. Theater and music, which were at the peak of their cultural development, were also subject to new reforms. Certain styles directed the authors in one direction or another. Below we will look at the epochs in art in order and find out in more detail what classicism was.
The romantic period
In the 18th century, people were infected with a mania for beauty and unearthly fantasies. This period is considered the most mysterious in the history of mankind, ephemeral and original. There is a tendency in society that each person is a separate spiritual and creative person, with their inner world, experiences, and joys. As a rule, when historians present cultural epochs in chronological order, one of the most important places is given to romanticism. During this period, which lasted until the 19th century, there were unique masterpieces of music (Chopin, Schubert, etc.), literature (famous French novels) and painting.
In parallel with romanticism in art, society itself improved. When you list all the epochs in order, as a rule, it is the Enlightenment that is put behind classicism. Along with the development of science and art at the end of the 17th century, the level of intelligence began to increase at a great speed in society. This was expressed in the rejection of Orthodox religious norms. Instead of sacred knowledge came logic and a bright mind. This greatly undermined the authority of the aristocracy and ruling dynasties, which largely relied on the help of the Church. The age of Enlightenment was the birth point of a new philosophy based on mathematics and physics. Some astronomical discoveries disproved many religious dogmas. The age of Enlightenment touched not only Europe, but also Russia, as well as the Far East, and even America. During this period, serfdom was abolished in many countries. It is also worth noting that in the 18th and 19th centuries, women began to participate in scientific and state meetings for the first time.
We have briefly listed all the historical epochs in order and come to the 20th century. This period is famous for the flourishing of various numerous coups and regime changes. Therefore, from a historical point of view, this era is called Since the beginning of the 20th century, we can say that society has become completely equal. Slavery was eradicated all over the world, and clear borders of States were established. Such conditions have become the optimal environment for the development of not only art but also science. We now live in this era, so to consider it in detail, it is enough to look back.