The history of Ancient Egypt is divided into the following epochs: The first (beginning of the 4th millennium BC) and the Second (mid-4th millennium BC) pre-dynastic periods; Early Kingdom (32-29 centuries BC); The Ancient Kingdom (28–23 centuries BC); The first transitional period (23-21 centuries BC); Middle Kingdom (21-18 centuries BC); Second transitional period (late 18th - mid-16th centuries BC); New Kingdom (16-11 centuries BC); The third transitional period (11-10 centuries BC); Later kingdom (9-7 centuries BC); the era of Persian domination (late 6th – 4th centuries BC).
Neolithic tribes 5 thousand BC (Merimd and El Omar cultures in the Delta, Fayum, and Tasi in Upper Egypt) do not yet know copper and continue to use stone tools. They raise small (sometimes even cattle) cattle and are engaged in primitive agriculture, making the first attempts to irrigate the soil; nevertheless, hunting and fishing continue to be the main source of their livelihood.
Most of the history of Ancient Egypt is divided into three "royal" periods: the Old (or Old) Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom, between which there are short periods of transition. The term "transitional" means that during these periods Egypt did not have a single centralized political power and was fragmented into several small warring states. The foundations of Egyptian civilization were laid several thousand years before the period of the Old Kingdom, since the Nile Valley was prone to settled agriculture, which in turn led to urbanization, to the division of labor, as well as to the emergence and growth of economic activities not related to agriculture.
Apart from the Nile Delta region (the place where the river forks and flows into the sea), most of the local settlements were located a few kilometers from the river bank (see map above). The Nile flooded annually. Its spills were so regular that the ancient Egyptians divided the calendar into three seasons: flood, seedling ,and drought.