Ancient Mesopotamia also known as Ancient Dvurechye, Ancient Mesopotamia is an ancient country in Western Asia in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the place of origin and development of the ancient civilization; Mesopotamia was home to the Sumerian and Akkadian kingdoms of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon and Assyria as well as the Hurrian-Aryan state of Mitanni.
Mesopotamia is one of the great civilizations of the ancient world; along with Egypt it is considered the first on earth It emerged in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. and died out at the beginning of our era. Mesopotamia had the earliest written language, the first cities and states (including the imperial type), the rudiments of the banking system, the earliest literature, libraries, schools, archives, museums, monotheistic and dualistic teachings (rudiments of monotheism in the Ashshur and Bela-Marduk cults, Manicheism). The very appearance of Mesopotamian civilization (architecture, sculpture, etc.) and its institutions (statehood, law, monetary system, calendar, etc.) became a model for many states and societies of the Middle East - Elam, the Hittite Kingdom, Midia, the Persian Empire and others.
It left a deep trace in the world culture: its achievements go back to the ancient traditions of mathematics (division of the circle into 360 degrees and other units of the hexadecimal notation system), astronomy (zodiac and other constellations), astrology; it had a serious influence on the biblical tradition (the Flood myth, the Tower of Babel and other subjects).
Around 6-8 thousand years ago, agriculture was already actively flourishing in a number of regions, such as ancient Egypt along the Nile, the Indus civilization near the Indus, Mesopotamia between the Indus and the Euphrates, and ancient China between the Yangtze and Huang He rivers. The point is that the regular floods of these rivers made the soil along their banks fertile, and the rivers themselves served as sources of fresh water for irrigation. Since farming contributed to population density, it is not surprising that the first civilizations were born in these regions.
Mesopotamia, located in the territories of modern Iraq and Kuwait, is often called the "cradle of ancient civilizations," because it was there that the first significant city-states and empires emerged (although not only there). The word "Mesopotamia" is of ancient Greek origin; "mesos" means "between," and "potamos" means "river," that is, Mesopotamia is "the Land between two rivers. In the Russian-language literature one can find a Russified term - "Mesopotamia. These two rivers are the Tigris and the Euphrates. Mesopotamia was not just one of the first places where agriculture originated, it was, one might say, at the intersection of the Indus and Egyptian civilizations. The result was a melting pot of different languages and cultures between the Tigris and Euphrates, which actively influenced writing, technology, trade, religion, and laws.
Such ancient cultures as Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian, and Babylonian are also associated with Mesopotamia. It is not easy to study this period of history because all of these cultures interacted with each other and periodically dominated each other for several thousand years. All of these terms are associated with city-states, languages, religions or empires, depending on the time and historical context we are considering.